By V. Mojok. Utah State University.
Perhaps you have never realized that you have this sense of position and movement a sense called proprioception or kinaesthesia buy malegra dxt 130mg fast delivery erectile dysfunction jacksonville. Lippincot Company) 199 Human Anatomy and Physiology Disruption of general sense organs can occur by a variety of mechanisms. For example, third degree burns can completely destroy general sense receptors throughout the affected area. This commonly occurs when you put your legs in a position that presses your legs in a way that reduces blood flow. When you try to stand up, you cannot feel you legs because the general sense organs are temporarily impaired. What are the functions of the sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system, and how do these compare with those of the parasympathetic nervous system? For example, the nervous system acts by means of electric impulses and chemical stimuli; where as the endocrine system has more widespread, slower, and longer lasting effects. The endocrine system also has more generalized effects on such activities as growth, metabolism, and reproduction. The blood reaches all cells of the body, but only certain cells respond to specific hormones; these responding cells are unique in that they have receptors to which the hormones attach. Only cells that have receptors for a given hormone will respond to that hormone; these cells make up what is called the target tissue. These glands are also called the ductless glands because they secrete directly into the blood stream, in contrast to the endocrine glands, which secrete into body cavities. The organs believed to have the very richest blood supply of any in the body are the tiny adrenal, or suprarenal, glands, which are located near the upper part of the kidneys. Some of the glands included in this system, such as the pancreas and the sex glands, have other nonendocrine functions as well, but hormone secretion is is one of their main functions. In addition, some body organs, such as the stomach, small intestine, and kidney, produce hormones, but since their main function is not hormone production, they are not discussed in this unit. Many of the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland are critical to the activity of target glands, including the thyroid, adrenal and gonads. Anatomy The pituitary gland (hypophysis cerebri) is located at the base of the brain, resting with in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. The pituitary gland maintains elaborate neural and vascular connections with the hypothalamus of the brain, which plays a central role in the integration of neuroendocrine activity (Figure 8-1). The pituitary gland has two major divisions: The anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neuro- hypophysis). Adenohypophysis The adenohypophysis is served by an elaborate vascular system, including the hypothalamohypophyseal portal system, 207 Human Anatomy and Physiology which transports hypothalamic regulating hormones (hypophyseotropic hormones) to the glandular cells of the adenohypophysis. The classification of cells in the adenohypophysis is based on specific immunohistochemical techniques. In addition to growth hormone, the thyroid hormones, insulin, androgens, and estrogens play important roles in normal human growth and development at various times of the life cycle. However, in cartilage, bone, and other body tissues, the protein anabolic and growth-promoting actions are mediated by insulinlike growth factors (somatomedins). The elevation of plasma levels of free fatty acids resulting from the hydrolysis of triglycerides (stored neutral fats) is potentially ketogenic. Prolactin facilitates the secretion of dopamine in the hypothalamus, thereby regulating its own secretion by a negative feedback mechanism. Actions Prolactin initiates and maintains milk secretion from breasts primed for lactation by other hormones such as estrogens, progesterone, and insulin. It also appears to inhibit the effects of the gonadotropins and may prevent ovulation in lactating women. Actions Follicle-stimulating hormone directly stimulates the sertoli cells in testicular seminiferous tubles, there by promoting spermatogenesis in the male. Actions Thyroid-stimulating hormone maintains the structural integrity of the thyroid gland and promotes the synthesis and release of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The enhanced reabsorption of water from the renal tubules results in the production a concentrated urine that is reduced in volume. The early observations that posterior pitutary extracts produce a marked elevation of arterial blood pressure led to the initial naming of this hormone as vasopressin.
Optimization of variable number tandem repeat typing set for differentiating Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in the Beijing family generic malegra dxt 130mg on line erectile dysfunction treatment in kenya. Simultaneous detection and strain differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for diagnosis and epidemiology. Comparison of methods based on different molecular epidemiological markers for typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains: interlaboratory study of discriminatory power and reproducibility. Evaluation of the epidemiologic utility of secondary typing methods for differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. High resolution, on-line identification of strains from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex based on tandem repeat typing. High-resolution minisatellite-based typing as a portable approach to global analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis molecular epide- miology. Tubercle bacilli resistant to isoniazid; virulence and response to treatment with isoniazid in guinea-pigs. Molecu- lar characteristics of strains of the cameroon family, the major group of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a country with a high prevalence of tuberculosis. Multiple Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in early cultures from patients in a high-incidence community setting. Development of variable-number tandem repeat typing of Mycobacterium bovis: comparison of results with those obtained by using ex- isting exact tandem repeats and spoligotyping. Stability of variable-number tandem repeats of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units from 12 loci in serial isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mixed infection and clonal representative- ness of a single sputum sample in tuberculosis patients from a penitentiary hospital in Georgia. Genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Experimental versus in silico fluorescent amplified frag- ment length polymorphism analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: improved typing with an extended fragment range. Mo- lecular strain typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to confirm cross-contamination in the mycobacteriology laboratory and modification of procedures to minimize occurrence of false-positive cultures. Spoligotype database of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: biogeographic distribution of shared types and epide- miologic and phylogenetic perspectives. Proposal for standardization of optimized mycobacte- rial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Automated high- throughput genotyping for study of global epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis based on mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units. Improvement of differentiation and interpretability of spoligotyping for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates by in- troduction of new spacer oligonucleotides. Public health impact of isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains with a mutation at amino-acid position 315 of katG: a decade of experience in The Netherlands. Transmission of a multidrug-resistant Myco- bacterium tuberculosis strain resembling "strain W" among noninstitutionalized, human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative patients. Molecular epidemiology of tubercu- losis in the Netherlands: a nationwide study from 1993 through 1997. Mutations at amino acid position 315 of the katG gene are associated with high-level re- sistance to isoniazid, other drug resistance, and successful transmission of Mycobacte- rium tuberculosis in The Netherlands. Molecular characteristics and global spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with a western cape F11 genotype. Nosocomial Mycobacterium bovis-bacille Calmette-Guerin infections due to contamination of chemotherapeutics: case finding and route of transmission. Fatal Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin infection caused by contamination of chemotherapeutic agents and not by endogenous reactivation: correction of a previous conclusion. In the last ten years of work with experimental laboratory models, many vaccine candidates have been developed. These new vaccines can be expected in the middle term, and live vaccines are reliable and promising candidates.
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