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The pattern of brain activation was not random: the areas activated by mag- netic pulses included the site beneath the stimulating coil and several regions to which that area was anatomically connected kamagra oral jelly 100 mg on line erectile dysfunction treatment in thailand. From hereon mag- netic stimulation will be used to assess which of those activations have a functional meaning by applying it and recording brain blood flow when subjects are performing a task. It may even lead to crossing one of the longest bridges in cognitive neuroscience: how do the functionally special- ised regions of the brain act together to produce our experience of the world? The upshot of all this will be what science always aims for – counterintuitive insights into a piece of the natural world. Whatever happens there is only one route scientists can take and for a reminder we can go back to Faraday. In 1859, while trying to devise a means of measuring gravitational forces, he wrote in his diary, ‘Let the imagina- tion go, guiding it by judgement and principle, but holding it in and direct- ing it by experiment’ – good advice for the next millennium of science. Thompson Michael Thompson was born in Cottingham, Yorkshire, on 7 June 1937, studied at Cambridge, where he graduated with first class honours in Mechanical Sciences in 1958 and obtained his PhD in 1962 and his ScD in 1977. He was a Fulbright researcher in aeronautics at Stanford University and joined University College London (UCL) in 1964. He has published four books on instabilities, bifurcations, catastrophe theory and chaos and 183 184 CONTRIBUTOR BIOGRAPHIES was appointed professor at UCL in 1977. Michael was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1985 and was awarded the Ewing Medal of the Institution of Civil Engineers. In 1991 he was appointed director of the Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics at UCL. He is currently editor of the Royal Society’s Philosophical Transactions (Series A) which is the world’s longest running scientific journal. His scientific interests include nonlinear dynamics and their applications. His recreations include walking, tennis and astronomy with his grandson Ben, shown above. Roberts Gareth Roberts’ research interests are centred on the quantum dynamics of ultrafast laser–molecule interactions and molecular collisions. He was brought up in South Wales and holds degrees from the Universities of London and Cambridge. His interest in ultrafast phenomena was triggered in 1989 by an inspirational stay as a NATO Postdoctoral Fellow in the laboratory of Professor A. He is 36 years old and is currently a Royal Society University Research Fellow at Cambridge University and a Fellow of Churchill College, Cambridge. Sutcli≈e Born in Rochdale, Lancashire, Michael Sutcliffe (left) studied at Bristol, where he graduated with first class honours in chemical physics in 1985, and at Birkbeck College, London, where he obtained his PhD in protein modelling in 1988. Aged 35, he was a SERC/NATO Fellow at Oxford University and Junior Research Fellow at Linacre College, a Royal Society University Fellow at Leicester University, and joined Leicester University as a Lecturer in 1998, where he is currently Reader. His research involves the development and use of computational methods to address one of the major challenges in the biomolecular sciences, understanding the relation- ship between protein structure and function. He has over 60 publications, including specialised reviews, and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry in 1999. He graduated from King’s College, London, with first class honours in 1985 and was awarded the Sir William Robson prize. In 1988, he was elected a Research 186 CONTRIBUTOR BIOGRAPHIES Fellow at St John’s College and was awarded the Humphreys Research prize. At Cambridge, Nigel was a Research Fellow of the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 and Royal Society University Research Fellow. Aged 36, Nigel is now Professor at Leicester University and Lister Institute Research Fellow. His scientific interests include mechan- istic and quantum enzymology: his recreational interests include Victorian and College philately. Goodman Jonathan Goodman studied chemistry at Cambridge, graduating with a BA in 1986, and with a PhD in organic chemistry in 1990. He then worked at Columbia University, New York, with Professor Clark Still, before return- ing to Cambridge as a Research Fellow at Clare College. He is now a Royal Society University Research Fellow in the Department of Chemistry, and uses both computational and experimental techniques to study organic chemistry. He is aged 35, and has recently published a book with the Royal Society of Chemistry, Chemical Applications of Molecular Modelling, which introduces experimental organic chemists to computational tech- niques.

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He in physiology or medicine for the bacterial and viral research found he could mate two strains of bacteria order kamagra oral jelly 100 mg online erectile dysfunction treatment aids, one resistant to that provided a new line of investigations of viral diseases and and the other to streptomycin, and produce bacteria cancer. WORLD OF MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY 347 Lister, Joseph Lister, Joseph Loeffler, Friedrich August Johannes See also See also See also viruses smallpox John F. See also was possible to develop a test for antibodies that had devel- which has proved controversial among most AIDS oped against it—the HIV test. Montagnier and his group also researchers, is the subject of ongoing research. He has described himself as an called HIV–2 was discovered by Montagnier and colleagues aggressive researcher who spends much time in either the lab- in April 1986. Montagnier enjoys A controversy developed over the patent on the HIV test swimming and classical music, and loves to play the piano, in the mid–1980s. Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, announced his own discovery of the HIV virus in April 1984 and received the patent on the AIDS, recent advances in research and treatment; test. The Institut Pasteur claimed the patent (and the profits) Immunodeficiency diseases; Viruses and responses to viral based on Montagnier’s earlier discovery of HIV. Despite the infection controversy, Montagnier continued research and attended numerous scientific meetings with Gallo to share information. Intense mediation efforts by (the scientist who developed the first polio vaccine) led to an international agree- ment signed by the scientists and their respective countries in 1987. Montagnier and Gallo agreed to be recognized as co- discoverers of the virus, and the two governments agreed that Lady Mary Wortley Montague contributed to microbiology and the profits of the HIV test be shared most going to a founda- by virtue of her powers of observation and her tion for AIDS research). As the wife of the British The scientific dispute continued to resurface, however. Ambassador Extraordinary to the Turkish court, Montague and Most HIV viruses from different patients differ by six to her family lived in Istanbul. While there she observed and was twenty percent because of the remarkable ability of the virus convinced of the protective power of inoculation against the to mutate. She wrote to friends in England describing different from Montagnier’s, leading to the suspicion that both inoculation and later, upon their return to England, she worked viruses were from the same source. The laboratories had to popularize the practice of inoculation in that country. Charges of scientific misconduct on Gallo’s part led brush with the disease in 1715, which left her with a scarred to an investigation by the National Institutes of Health in face and lacking eyebrows, and also from the death of her 1991, which initially cleared Gallo. While posted in Istanbul, she was was reviewed by the newly created Office of Research introduced to the practice of inoculation. The ORI report, issued in March of 1993, confirmed a smallpox scab on the surface of the skin was rubbed into an that Gallo had in fact “discovered” the virus sent to him by open cut of another person. Whether Gallo had been aware of this fact in develop a mild case of smallpox but would never be ravaged by 1983 could not be established, but it was found that he had the full severity of the disease caused by more virulent strains been guilty of misrepresentations in reporting his research and of the smallpox virus. Lady Montague was so enthused by the that his supervision of his research lab had been desultory. The protection offered against smallpox that she insisted on having Institut Pasteur immediately revived its claim to the exclusive her children inoculated. In 1718, her three-year-old son was right to the patent on the HIV test. In 1721, having returned to England, she insisted sion by the ORI, however, and took his case before an appeals that her English doctor inoculate her five-year-old daughter. The Upon her return to England following the expiration of board in December of 1993 cleared Gallo of all charges, and her husband’s posting, Montague used her standing in the high the ORI subsequently withdrew their charges for lack of proof. Her passion convinced a number of English physicians ations aside, in May of 2002, the two scientists announced a and even the reigning Queen, who decreed that the royal chil- partnership in the effort to speed the development of a vaccine dren and future heirs to the crown would be inoculated against against AIDS. In a short time, it became fashionable to be one of Human Virology, while Montagnier pursues concurrent those who had received an inoculation, partly perhaps because research as head of the World Foundation for AIDS Research it was a benefit available only to the wealthy. Montagnier’s continuing work includes investigation of Smallpox outbreaks of the eighteenth century in the envelope proteins of the virus that link it to the T-cell. The is also extensively involved in research of possible drugs to death rate among those who had been inoculated against combat AIDS. In 1990, Montagnier hypothesized that a sec- smallpox was far less than among the uninoculated.

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Consequences of analgesia include the development of neu- ropathic ulcers purchase 100mg kamagra oral jelly otc adderall xr impotence, burns, Charcot joints, even painless mutilation or amputation. Congenital syndromes of insensitivity to pain were once regarded as a central pain asymbolia (e. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 1994; 57: 973-974 Cross References Anesthesia; Frontal lobe syndromes Anal Reflex Contraction of the external sphincter ani muscle in response to a scratch stimulus in the perianal region, testing the integrity of the S4/S5 roots, forms the anal or wink reflex. This reflex may be absent in some normal elderly individuals, and absence does not necessarily cor- relate with urinary incontinence. External anal responses to coughing and sniffing are part of a highly consistent and easily elicited polysy- naptic reflex, whose characteristics resemble those of the conventional scratch-induced anal reflex. The anal reflex can be elicited by cough and sniff – validation of a clinical sign. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2004; 75: 521 (abstract 027) Cross References Reflexes Anarchic Hand - see ALIEN HAND, ALIEN LIMB - 25 - A Anarithmetia Anarithmetia - see ACALCULIA Anarthria Anarthria is the complete inability to articulate words (cf. A motor disorder of speech production with preserved comprehen- sion of spoken and written language has been termed pure anarthria; this syndrome has also been called aphemia, phonetic disintegration, apraxic dysarthria, cortical dysarthria, verbal apraxia, subcortical motor apha- sia, pure motor aphasia, and small or mini Broca’s aphasia. It reflects damage in the left frontal operculum, but with sparing of Broca’s area. A pure progressive anarthria may result from focal degeneration affecting the frontal operculum bilaterally (so-called Foix-Chavany- Marie syndrome). The “pure” form of the phonetic disinte- gration syndrome (pure anarthria): anatomo-clinical report of a single case. Brain and Language 1976; 3: 88-113 Cross References Aphemia; Bulbar palsy; Dysarthria Anesthesia Anesthesia (anaesthesia) is a complete loss of sensation; hypoesthe- sia (hypoaesthesia, hypesthesia) is a diminution of sensation. Anesthesia may involve all sensory modalities (global anesthesia, as in general surgical anesthesia) or be selective (e. Anesthesia is most often encountered after resection or lysis of a peripheral nerve segment, whereas paresthesia or dysesthesia (positive sensory phenomena) reflect damage to a nerve which is still in contact with the cell body. Anesthesia dolorosa, or painful anesthesia, is a persistent unpleas- ant pain (i. This deafferentation pain may respond to various medications, including tricyclic antidepressants, carbamazepine, gabapentin, pregabalin, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Cross References Analgesia; Dysesthesia; Neuropathy; Paresthesia Angioscotoma Angioscotomata are shadow images of the superficial retinal vessels on the underlying retina, a physiological scotoma. This may be due to primary autonomic failure, or to pathology within the posterior hypothalamus (“sympathetic area”). Anhidrosis may occur in various neurological disorders, including multiple system atrophy, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, caudal to a spinal cord lesion, and in some hereditary sensory and autonomic neu- ropathies. Localized or generalized anhidrosis may be seen in Holmes- Adie syndrome, and unilateral anhidrosis may be seen in Horner’s syndrome if the symptomatic lesion is distal to the superior cervical ganglion. Cross References Holmes-adie pupil, Holmes-adie syndrome; Horner’s syndrome; Hyperhidrosis Anismus Anismus, also known as puborectalis syndrome, is paradoxical contrac- tion of the external anal sphincter during attempted defecation, leading to fecal retention and a complaint of constipation. This may occur as an idiopathic condition in isolation, or as a feature of the off periods of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. It is thought to represent a focal dysto- nia, and may be helped by local injections of botulinum toxin. Involuntary contractions of the striated anal sphincters as a cause of constipation: report of a case. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum 1998; 41: 258-260 Cross References Dystonia; Parkinsonism Anisocoria Anisocoria is an inequality of pupil size. This may be physiological (said to occur in up to 15% of the population), in which case the inequality is usually mild and does not vary with degree of ambient illumination; or pathological, with many possible causes. Affected pupil constricted (miosis; oculosym- pathetic paresis): Horner’s syndrome Argyll Robertson pupil Cluster headache Anisocoria greater in bright light/less in dim light suggests defect in parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. Affected pupil dilated (mydriasis; oculoparasympathetic paresis): Holmes-Adie pupil (vermiform movements of the pupil margin may be visible with a slit-lamp) - 27 - A Annular Scotoma Oculomotor (III) nerve palsy (efferent path from Edinger- Westphal nucleus) Mydriatic agents (phenylephrine, tropicamide) Anticholinergic agents (e. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002: 135-146 Cross References Argyll Robertson pupil; Holmes-adie pupil, Holmes-adie syndrome; Horner’s syndrome; Miosis; Mydriasis Annular Scotoma An annular or ring scotoma suggests retinal disease, as in retinitis pig- mentosa or cancer-associated retinopathy (paraneoplastic retinal degeneration) Cross References Retinopathy; Scotoma; Visual field defects Anomia Anomia or dysnomia is a deficit in naming or word-finding.

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My analysis is informed by a symbolic interactionist perspective that emphasizes the process by which people give meaning to reality buy kamagra oral jelly 100 mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction in the military, and how those meanings guide their actions. This research is a timely addition to the literature on alternative and complementary health care as it addresses significant gaps in this area of scholarship. For instance, dominant biomedical interests mean that there is considerable study of the therapies themselves, especially the issues of efficacy and safety (Ernst 1997, 1999, 2000a; Lewith et al. An equally pervasive concentration on the professions means that research is, more often than not, geared towards the study of the activities of alternative practitioners in their efforts to professionalize or achieve regulated status (Boon 1998; Bourgeault 2000; Coburn 1997; Saks 1995). While the aforementioned are certainly valid research concerns, preoccupation with them turns attention away from the lay person who participates in these approaches to health and healing. Moreover, even when the focus of research is on the user of these therapies, the overwhelming majority of studies employ quantitative methods (Eisenberg et al. While quantitative approaches can provide us with information about the number of people who use alternative health care, as well as about their broad demographic characteristics, they tell us less about the wider experiences people have with alternative therapies and the impact of those experiences on their lives. The study of alternative therapy has also been dominated by British and American scholarship. While the last ten years has seen the burgeoning of attention to the study of alternative health and healing by Canadian scholars,1 little international research has addressed participation in alternative health care in the Canadian context. For instance, in documenting the usage of | IX alternative and complementary therapies in the United Kingdom (UK) and internationally, Fulder (1996:xii) refers to “the United States, Western Europe, Germany, France, The Netherlands, the rest of Europe and Scandinavia,... China [and] India”—but makes no mention of the use of alternative therapies in Canada. Therefore, my intent in this book is to address these gaps in the literature by furthering understanding of how and why Canadians seek out alternative health care, of their beliefs about these approaches to health and healing, and of what impact participation in these therapies has on them. This work will be of particular interest to sociologists and other social scientists researching and teaching in the areas of health and health care, as well as in those of alternative and complementary therapies. It will also be useful for graduate and undergraduate students in health studies programs or those majoring in sociology and social sciences with a focus on health, illness, and health care. Given my attention to issues of identity construction and stigma management, this book can also serve as a supplementary text in courses dealing with such subjects as “the self and identity” as well as “deviant behaviour. Finally, I hope that this study and its findings will be of interest to those members of the general public who participate in alternative therapies, or who wish to learn more about alternative forms of health and healing. Acknowledgements I am grateful to William Shaffir, Dorothy Pawluch, and Roy Cain, who supervised the dissertation research from which this book emerged. Professor Shaffir’s expertise in qualitative methods and symbolic interactionist theory has been instrumental in shaping my development as a sociologist. In addition, I thank him for his continued support of my work and for his mischievous sense of humour. I am equally appreciative of the specialist knowledge Professors Pawluch and Cain shared with me. They were, at the time, two of the very few Canadian scholars working in the area of lay participation in alternative health care, and my research would have been the lesser without their counsel. Special thanks to Professor Pawluch, who has been my mentor from the time I began my undergraduate studies in sociology. I am ever grateful to her for her friendship and consistent encouragement. I would also like to express my appreciation to Althea Prince, Managing Editor of Canadian Scholars’ Press, and Rebecca Conolly, Manager of Book Production, both for their commitment to this project and for their thought- ful editorial guidance. Thanks likewise to Rob Baggot, Robert Prus, Mike Saks, Will van den Hoonaard, and the anonymous reviewers of this manuscript, for the constructive suggestions they offered during the pro- posal stage and editing of this book, as well as to Dirk Lenentine and Denis Desjardins for their essential graphic design skills. In addition, I acknowledge the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and McMaster University for their generous funding of the research on which this book is based. I am also grateful for the love and support of my family and friends throughout my research and writing. In particular, I thank my father, Doug Low, and my stepmother, Nancy Low, whose confidence in my abilities, | XI and willingness to listen to my on-going analysis, continue to motivate me. I also owe a debt that can never be repaid to Raymond Murphy and Steven Crocker who, along with their friendship, provided me with a place to live and an environment in which I was able to work during a critical point in my life.

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