By H. Dudley. University of Maryland University College.
Our discussion will focus on the three processes that are central to long-term memory: encoding discount amitriptyline 75 mg otc treatment for shingles pain and itching, storage, and retrieval. Explicit memory refers to knowledge or experiences that can be consciously remembered. Arecall memory test is a measure of explicit memory that involves bringing from memory information that has previously been remembered. We rely on our recall memory when we take an essay test, because the test requires us to generate previously remembered information. A multiple-choice test is an example of a recognition memory test, a measure of explicit memory that involves determining whether information has been seen or learned before. Recall, such as required on essay tests, involves two steps: first generating an answer and then determining whether it seems to be the correct one. Recognition, as on multiple-choice test, only involves determining which item from  a list seems most correct (Haist, Shimamura, & Squire, 1992). Although they involve different processes, recall and recognition memory measures tend to be correlated. Students who do better on a multiple-choice exam will also, by and large, do better on an essay exam (Bridgeman &  Morgan, 1996). Measures of relearning (or savings) assess how much more quickly information is processed or learned when it is studied again after it has already been learned but then forgotten. If you have taken some French courses in the past, for instance, you might have forgotten most of the vocabulary you learned. But if you were to work on your French again, you‘d learn the vocabulary much faster the second time around. Relearning can be a more sensitive measure of memory than either recall or recognition because it allows assessing memory in terms of “how much‖ or “how fast‖ rather than simply “correct‖ versus “incorrect‖ responses. Relearning also allows us to measure memory for procedures like driving a car or playing a piano piece, as well as memory for facts and figures. Implicit Memory While explicit memory consists of the things that we can consciously report that we know, implicit memory refers to knowledge that we cannot consciously access. However, implicit memory is nevertheless exceedingly important to us because it has a direct effect on our behavior. Implicit memory refers to the influence of experience on behavior, even if the individual is not aware of those influences. When we walk from one place to another, speak to another person in English, dial a cell phone, or play a video game, we are using procedural memory. Procedural memory allows us to perform complex tasks, even though we may not be able to explain to others how we do them. There is no way to tell someone how to ride a bicycle; a person has to learn by doing it. The ability to crawl, walk, and talk are procedures, and these skills are easily and efficiently developed while we are children despite the fact that as adults we have no conscious memory of having learned them. A second type of implicit memory is classical conditioning effects, in which we learn, often without effort or awareness, to associate neutral stimuli (such as a sound or a light) with another stimulus (such as food), which creates a naturally occurring response, such as enjoyment or salivation. The memory for the association is demonstrated when the conditioned stimulus (the sound) begins to create the same response as the unconditioned stimulus (the food) did before the learning. The final type of implicit memory is known as priming, or changes in behavior as a result of experiences that have happened frequently or recently. One measure of the influence of priming on implicit memory is the word fragment test, in which a person is asked to fill in missing letters to make words. You can try this yourself: First, try to complete the following word fragments, but work on each one for only three or four seconds. I think you might find that it is easier to complete fragments 1 and 3 as “library‖ and “book,‖ respectively, after you read the sentence than it was before you read it. However, reading the sentence didn‘t really help you to complete fragments 2 and 4 as “physician‖ and “chaise. Once a concept is primed it influences our behaviors, for instance, on word fragment tests.
Refer to The Thought Query Quiz in Chapter 4 if you experience any difﬁculty ﬁguring out your thoughts about the event order amitriptyline 10 mg line treatment pain behind knee. Using the Information Reality Scramblers information from Worksheet 5-1, record the distortions you believe are at work. Worksheet 5-5 Thought Tracker Information Reality Scrambler Practice Feelings and Sensations Corresponding Events Thoughts/ Information Reality (Rated 1–100) Interpretations Scrambler For extra copies of this form, visit www. In working through the exercise in Worksheet 5-5, were you able to ﬁnd the Information Reality Scramblers in your thinking? If so, we expect you’ll begin questioning whether or not your thoughts about events are always accurate. With that doubt comes the possibility of seeing things a little differently — more realistically, actually. We hope we’re beginning to shake up your thinking (see Chapter 6 for a variety of strategies for replacing distorted thinking with more accurate perceptions). Depressed and anxious minds tend to be harshly critical, judgmental, and self-abusive. Although you may think otherwise, self-criticism doesn’t motivate you to do anything positive or productive; rather, it only makes you feel worse and leaves you with less energy for changing. Self-Judging Reality Scramblers come in three different forms: Shoulds Critical comparisons Loathsome labels Shoulding on yourself One of our favorite quotes comes from psychologist Dr. And we must admit, we occasionally fall victim to the tyranny of the should as well. Shoulding involves putting yourself down by telling yourself that you should be or act different in some way. To identify your own shoulds, take the quiz in Worksheet 5-7, putting a check mark next to each thought that has run through your mind. Shoulding is a form of criticism that makes you feel bad because guilt and shame don’t motivate positive behavior. The alternative to shoulding on yourself is recognizing that it may be a good idea to do things differently but refusing to engage in harsh self-judgment. Before you get to your own should alternatives, in Worksheet 5-8, you can read Murphy’s should statements and see how she develops alternatives to shoulding on herself. Worksheet 5-8 Murphy’s Should Alternative Exercise Should Statement Should Alternative Statement I shouldn’t get upset so I wish I didn’t get upset so often, but I do. I should spend more time I do want to spend more time on these exercises, on the exercises in this but every bit that I do is worth something. Review any items you endorsed from The Shoulding-on-Yourself Quiz (see Worksheet 5-7) and also listen to your self-dialogue. Then ﬁll out the Should Alternative Exercise in Worksheet 5-9 by following these instructions: 1. Come up with alternative perspectives for each should statement and write them in the right-hand column. Words like “prefer,” “would like to,” “wish,” and “would be better if,” make good alternatives to “should. Even if you’re the best at something, that doesn’t mean you’re the best at everything. People have strengths and weaknesses, and if you do think you’re the best at everything, you have a problem that’s quite different from anxiety or depression. But anxious and depressed folks tend to rate themselves more negatively and place more value on those comparisons. To identify your negative personal comparisons, put a check mark next to each item in Worksheet 5-10 that you sometimes examine in yourself and then compare to others. Chapter 5: Untangling Twisted Thinking 67 Worksheet 5-10 The Critical Comparison Quiz ❏ Finances or wealth ❏ Looks and appearance ❏ Intelligence ❏ Popularity ❏ Fame ❏ Gadgets (a guy thing) ❏ House ❏ Car ❏ Clothes ❏ Status ❏ Age ❏ Knowledge Essentially, the less comparing you do, the better off you are. However, the seduction of comparisons lies in the fact that they contain a kernel of truth. The reality is that there’s always someone richer, younger, or higher on the ladder than you.
Introject and identity: Structural-interpersonal analysis and psychological assessment of multiple personality disorder buy 75 mg amitriptyline with mastercard pain treatment ibs. Summarize and differentiate the various forms of mood disorders, in particular dysthymia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder. Explain the genetic and environmental factors that increase the likelihood that a person will develop a mood disorder. The everyday variations in our feelings of happiness and sadness reflect ourmood, which can be defined as the positive or negative feelings that are in the background of our everyday experiences. In most cases we are in a relatively good mood, and this positive mood has some positive consequences—it encourages us to do what needs to be done and to make the most of  the situations we are in (Isen, 2003). When we are in a good mood our thought processes open up, and we are more likely to approach others. We are more friendly and helpful to others when we are in a good mood than we are when we are in a bad mood, and we may think more  creatively (De Dreu, Baas, & Nijstad, 2008). On the other hand, when we are in a bad mood we are more likely to prefer to be alone rather than interact with others, we focus on the negative things around us, and our creativity suffers. It is not unusual to feel “down‖ or “low‖ at times, particularly after a painful event such as the death of someone close to us, a disappointment at work, or an argument with a partner. We often get depressed when we are tired, and many people report being particularly sad during the winter when the days are shorter. Mood (or affective) disorders are psychological disorders in which the Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. People who suffer from mood disorders tend to experience more intense—and particularly more intense negative—moods. The most common symptom of mood disorders is negative mood, also known as sadness or depression. Consider the feelings of this person, who was struggling with depression and was diagnosed with major depressive disorder: I didn’t want to face anyone; I didn’t want to talk to anyone. I didn’t really want to do anything for myself…I couldn’t sit down for a minute really to do anything that took deep concentration…It was like I had big huge weights on my legs and I was trying to swim and just kept sinking. And I’d get a little bit of air, just enough to survive and then I’d go back down again. It was just constantly, constantly just fighting, fighting, fighting, fighting, fighting. Recurrence of depressive episodes is fairly common and is greatest for those who first experience depression before the age of 15 years. About twice as  many women suffer from depression than do men (Culbertson, 1997). This gender difference is consistent across many countries and cannot be explained entirely by the fact that women are more likely to seek treatment for their depression. Rates of depression have been increasing over  the past years, although the reasons for this increase are not known (Kessler et al. As you can see below, the experience of depression has a variety of negative effects on our behaviors. In addition to the loss of interest, productivity, and social contact that accompanies depression, the person‘s sense of hopelessness and sadness may become so severe that he or she considers or even succeeds in committing suicide. Suicide is the 11th leading cause of death in the United States, and a suicide occurs approximately every 16 minutes. Almost all the people who commit suicide have a diagnosable psychiatric disorder at the time of their death (American Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Behaviors Associated with Depression Changes in appetite; weight loss or gain Difficulty concentrating, remembering details, and making decisions Fatigue and decreased energy Feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, and pessimism Increased use of alcohol or drugs Irritability, restlessness Loss of interest in activities or hobbies once pleasurable, including sex Loss of interest in personal appearance Persistent aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems that do not improve with treatment Sleep disorders, either trouble sleeping or excessive sleeping Thoughts of suicide or attempts at suicide Dysthymia and Major Depressive Disorder The level of depression observed in people with mood disorders varies widely. People who experience depression for many years, such that it becomes to seem normal and part of their everyday life, and who feel that they are rarely or never happy, will likely be diagnosed with a mood disorder. If the depression is mild but long-lasting, they will be diagnosed with dysthymia, a condition characterized by mild, but chronic, depressive symptoms that last for at least 2 years. If the depression continues and becomes even more severe, the diagnosis may become that of major depressive disorder. Major depressive disorder (clinical depression) is a mental disorder characterized by an all-encompassing low mood accompanied by low self-esteem and by loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities. Those who suffer from major depressive disorder feel an intense sadness, despair, and loss of interest in pursuits that once gave them Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. These negative feelings profoundly limit the individual‘s day-to-day functioning and  ability to maintain and develop interests in life (Fairchild & Scogin, 2008).