By F. Irhabar. University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point. 2018.
Other neurological signs with a persisting disability or impairment is 100 such as hemiparesis buy geriforte 100mg on-line herbals shops, seizures tend to occur very late in per 100,000. Generally, in the early stages, the patient is aware of a loss of their memory and may become very frus- Dementia trated and anxious. They lose the ability to function in daily life grad- Deﬁnition ually, and in later stages they become more apathetic, Asyndromeofacquiredcognitiveimpairment,withpro- with little spontaneous effort and therefore require full gressive global loss of cognitive function in the context personal care such as feeding, washing, dressing and of normal arousal. Acollateral history from a relative or close carer who Incidence has known the patient for a long time is essential. The 1% of those aged 65–74 years, 10% of those over 75 and carer is often the one most emotionally affected by the 25% of those over 85 years. Aetiology There are numerous causes of dementia, including Investigations r Alzheimer’s disease (most common >60%). These are to exclude any treatable causes of chronic con- r multi-infarct dementia caused by multiple small in- fusion. Management The speciﬁc management strategies are covered under Clinical features speciﬁc causes but general treatment includes the fol- See also under speciﬁc causes of dementia. Patients may lowing: have impairment of the following cognitive functions: r Multidisciplinary assessment. Chapter 7: Disorders of conciousness and memory 315 r Antidepressantsmayimprovefunctionallevelinthose r Neurochemical analysis reveals that patients with with low mood. The features are those of dementia, but with an insidious onset and progressive decline in memory and at least one of: Alzheimer’s disease r Dysphasia: Loss in language skills, especially with Deﬁnition names and understanding speech. Most common neurodegenerative disorder and cause of r Agnosia: Loss of ability to recognise objects, people, dementia. The onset can be in middle age, but the incidence rises r Disturbance in executive functioning (higher mental with age. Aetiology/pathophysiology r Risk factors include family history, Down’s syndrome Macroscopy and previous head injury. The brain is small, with shrinkage of the gyri and widen- r Molecular analysis of the amyloid found in the brains ing of the sulci. It is r Senile plaques in the cerebral cortex – spherical de- thought that these plaques then cause inﬂammation posits with a central core of amyloid composed of and hence neurotoxicity and apoptosis. Amyloid is also seen deposited in cere- r Mutations on Chr 21 in Down’s syndrome cause over- bral arteries causing amyloid angiopathy. The tan- dominant disorder with mutations on Chr 14 or 21 – gles are composed of a microtubule binding protein these cause increased activity of the secretases. These are also seen in Lewy many of the normal methods of sterilisation including body dementia. There are other (β secretase) has been cloned, leading to hopes of other prion diseases such as targeted therapies. Rapidly progressive dementia caused by a prion (pro- It is currently thought that a normal glycoprotein teinaceous infectious agent), described in 1982 by neu- in the brain (the function of which is unknown) rologist Stanley Prusiner undergoes conformational change to become prion pro- tein (PrP). This abnormally conformed protein is resis- tant to digestion by proteases and tends to form poly- Incidence mers. In familial cases, it appears More common in certain parts of the world due to fa- that the abnormal protein arises spontaneously due to a milial cases, e. It is in- volved in glycolytic pathways, mediating carbohydrate Microscopy metabolism. Deﬁciency leads to ischaemic damage to Neuronalloss,increaseinglialcells,lackofinﬂammation the brainstem. Other signs include ptosis, abnormal pupillary re- There are raised levels of a normal intraneuronal protein actions and altered consciousness. There is no reliable method of conﬁrming diagnosis Occasionally, patients present with Korsakoff’s, with except by brain biopsy or postmortem. Patients may have a peripheral neuropathy due to other Prognosis nutritional deﬁciencies. Investigations Diagnosis is usually clinical, and on response to thi- Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome amine. Erythocytetransketolaseactivityandbloodpyru- Deﬁnition vate are increased, but treatment should not be delayed Wernicke’s encephalopathy is a triad of confusion, oph- whilst waiting for results.
Identifcation: On the day of the test you will be required to present an original photo-bearing identifcation document discount 100 mg geriforte with visa herbs and pregnancy. This letter must be on offcial institution (school or workplace) letterhead and contain your name, date of birth, a passport photo glued to the letter with the institution stamp overlapping and the signature, printed name and title of the offcial verifying the identifcation as well as your signature. However, candidates should note when making transport arrangements that they will be in the Test Centre until approximately 13. Dress comfortably: Some Test Centres are warmer or cooler on weekends than during the week. Consider dressing in layers, so you will be comfortable irrespective of the room conditions. Further Information and Contact Details National University of Ireland, Galway University College Cork Admissions Offce Admissions Offce Tel. However, Admissions Offce no responsibility will be taken by the institutions for any errors or omissions. This work may be copied and distributed freely as long as the entire text and all disclaimers and copyright notices remain intact. This material may not be distributed for financial gain or included in any commercial collections or compilations. We have tried to avoid detailing specific managements (although we haven’t been entirely successful) for various conditions as we do not consider this to be an appropriate forum for that sort of detail and we suggest you consult the references. The primary chapter writers are credited, but there have been many contributions within chapters from others. We have also had editorial assistance and constructive comment from a number of others whose efforts we greatly appreciate. Disclaimer: The editors and authors accept no responsibility for the use or misuse of this information. The practice of medicine is something that should only be undertaken by trained professionals. If you start administering medical or surgical treatments without the appropriate skills you will kill someone. Even in emergency situations often no action is better than uninformed and untrained action. Much of this information is offered to give you perspective of what may be possible in a long term catastrophic disaster or when working in an austere or remote environment without access to organised or trained medical care – we in no way endorse practicing these techniques except in such a situation. This information is offered as personal opinions and should not be taken to represent a professional opinion or to reflect any views widely held within the medical community. Appropriate additional references should be consulted to confirm and validate the information contained in this book. It was written in response to recurring posts asking the same questions and the fact that many answers were often wrong and occasionally dangerous. While the original content remains valid we thought it was time it underwent an update. This is a significant revision – most sections have been re-written and a number of new sections added. It is offered in good faith but the content should be validated and confirmed from other sources before being relied on even in an emergency situation. There are very few books aimed at the “Practicing Medicine after the End of the World As We Know It” market – which is hardly surprising! We also hope it will be useful for those people delivering health care in remote or austere environments. It is designed to provide some answers to commonly asked questions relating to survival/preparedness medicine and to provide relevant information not commonly found in traditional texts or direct you to that information. We have tried to minimise technical language, but at times this has not been possible, if you come across unfamiliar terms – please consult a medical dictionary. The authors and editors are passionately committed to helping people develop their medical knowledge and skills for major disasters. Web Site: For questions and comments the authors can all be contacted via posting at the following website: “The Remote, Austere, Wilderness and Third world Medicine Forum” http://medtech. Poor hygiene and disrupted water supplies would lead to an increase in diseases such as typhoid and cholera. Without vaccines there would be a progressive return in infectious diseases such as polio, tetanus, whooping cough, diphtheria, mumps, etc. People suffering from chronic illnesses such as asthma, diabetes, or epilepsy would be severely affected with many dying (especially insulin-dependent diabetics).
If patients do not return to sinus rhythm or if not associated with myocardial infarction permanent Incidence pacing is indicated buy geriforte 100 mg on line herbals on deck. Third degree heart block is complete electrical dissocia- tion of the atria from the ventricles. It may also occur following Cardiac failure, Stokes–Adams attacks, asystole, sudden a massive anterior myocardial infarction and is a sign cardiac death. Rare r In acute complete heart block, intravenous isopre- causes include drugs, post-surgery, rheumatic fever naline or a temporary pacing wire may be used. Block of conduction in the left branch of the bundle of r Broad complex disease is due to more distal disease of His, which normally facilitates transmission of impulses the Purkinje system. The pacing thus arises within the to the left ventricle myocardium giving an unreliable 15–40 bpm rate. In the elderly causes include ﬁbrosis of the central bundle branches (Lenegre’s disease). Clinical features Clinical features r Severity of symptoms is dependent on the rate and re- Most patients are asymptomatic but reversed splitting of liability of the ectopic pacemaker, and whether or not the second heart sound may be observed. Symptoms include those of cardiac block the second heart sound is split on expiration, be- failure, dizziness and Stokes–Adams attacks (syncopal cause left ventricular conduction delay causes the aortic episodes lasting 5–30 seconds due to failure of ven- valvetocloseafterthepulmonaryvalve. Acute left bundle branch block may be a caused by ischaemic heart disease, ﬁbrosis of the bundles sign of acute myocardial infarction (see pages 37–39). Acute onset right bundle branch block may be associated with pulmonary embolism or a Complications rightventricular infarct. Clinical features Management Right bundle branch block is asymptomatic and is often Treatment is not necessary. There is widened splitting of the heart sounds with the pulmonary sound occurring later Right bundle branch block than normal. Deﬁnition Investigations Block to the right branch of the bundle of His, which The characteristic RsR’ is seen best in lead V1 and a normally facilitates transmission of impulses to the right late S wave is seen in V6. Aetiology/pathophysiology Right bundle branch block is often due to a congenital abnormality of little signiﬁcance, but may be associated Complications withatrialseptaldefects. Management ing in a failure to maintain sufﬁcient cardiac output to Treatment is not necessary. The clinical syndrome of heart failure is characterised by breathlessness, fatigue Prognosis and ﬂuid retention. Isolated right bundle branch block, particularly in a young person is generally benign. Concomitant left or Prevalence/incidence severe right axis deviation may indicate block in one of 900,000 cases in the United Kingdom; 1–4 cases per 1000 the fascicles of the left bundle, which can occur as a pre- population per annum. Cardiac failure Aetiology The most common cause of heart failure in the United Heart failure Kingdom is coronary artery disease (65%). Causes in- Deﬁnition clude Heart failure is a complex syndrome that can result from r myocardial dysfunction, e. In myocardial dysfunction there is an inability of the normal compensatory mechanisms to maintain cardiac Left-sided heart failure r Causes include myocardial infarction, systemic hyper- output. These mechanisms include r Frank–Starling mechanism in which increased tension, aortic stenosis/regurgitation, mitral regurgi- preloadresultsinanincreaseincontractilityandhence tation, cardiomyopathy. It can be acutely Congestive cardiac failure is the term for a combination symptomatic when lying ﬂat (orthopnea) or at night of the above, although it is often arbitrarily used for any (paroxysmal nocturnal dysnoea) due to redistribution symptomatic heart failure. Chronic pul- Clinically it is usual to divide cardiac failure into symp- monary oedema results in dilation of the pulmonary toms and signs of left and right ventricular failure, al- veins particularly those draining the upper lobes (up- though it is rare to see isolated right-sided heart failure perlobe vein diversion), pleural effusions and Kerley except in chronic lung disease. Anticoagulation should be con- r Echocardiography is used to assess ventricular func- sidered in atrial ﬁbrillation or with left ventricular tion. Echocardiographycanalsoshowany patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction sec- underlying valvular lesions as well as demonstrating ondary to ischaemic heart disease. Management Patients require correction or control of underlying Prognosis causes or contributing factors where possible, such as Overall mortality is 40% in the ﬁrst year after diagnosis, anaemia, pulmonary disease, thyrotoxicosis, hyperten- thereafter it falls to 10% per year.
With guidance and direct supervision buy 100 mg geriforte amex herbs lower blood pressure, participating in discussing basic issues regarding advance directives with patients and their families. With guidance and direct supervision, participating in discussing basic end-of- life issues with patients and their families. Assessing patient commitment and adherence to a treatment plan taking into account personal and economic circumstances. Working with a variety of patients, including multi-problem patients, angry patients, somatizing patients, and substance abuse patients. Working as an effective member of the patient care team, incorporating skills in inter-professional communication and collaboration. Orally presenting a new inpatient’s or outpatient’s case in a manner that includes the following characteristics: • Logically and chronologically develops the history of the present illness and tells the patient’s “story. Orally presenting a follow-up inpatient’s or outpatient’s case in a manner that includes the following characteristics: • Is focused, very concise, and problem-based. Demonstrating the ability to make clear and concise presentations about topics assigned to research. Demonstrating basic techniques of communication with non-English speaking patient via an interpreter. Demonstrate ongoing commitment to self-directed learning regarding effective doctor-patient communication skills. Seek feedback regularly regarding communication skills and respond appropriately and productively. Demonstrate teamwork and respect toward all members of the health care team, as manifested by reliability, responsibility, honesty, helpfulness, selflessness, and initiative in working with the team. Attend to or advocate for the patient’s interests and needs in a manner appropriate to the student’s role. Marrying content and process in clinical method teaching: enhancing the Calgary-Cambridge guides. Essential elements of communication in medical encounters: the Kalamazoo consensus statement. Determining how these test results will influence clinical decision making and communicating this information to patients in a timely and effective manner are core clinical skills that third-year medical students should possess. Interpret specific diagnostic tests and procedures that are ordered to evaluate patients who present with common symptoms and diagnoses encountered in the practice of internal medicine. Take into account: • Important differential diagnostic considerations, including potential diagnostic emergencies. Define and describe for the tests and procedures listed: • Indications for testing. Describe how errors in test interpretation can affect clinical outcomes and costs. Describe the concept of a threshold as it relates to testing and treatment decisions. Describe the basic principles of using genetic information in clinical decision making. Approaching chest radiography interpretation in a systematic and logical fashion analyzing the following: technique (e. Recording the results of laboratory tests in an organized manner, using flow sheets when appropriate. Estimating the post-test probability of disease and stating the clinical significance of the results of laboratory tests and diagnostic procedures. Regularly seek feedback regarding interpretation of clinical information and respond appropriately and productively. Recognize the importance of patient preferences when selecting among diagnostic testing options. Demonstrate ongoing commitment to self-directed learning regarding test interpretation. Appreciate the importance of follow-up on all diagnostic tests and procedures and timely communication of information to patients and appropriate team members.
Kimm and colleagues (2002) reported a decline in physical activity in girls during adolescence order 100 mg geriforte fast delivery herbals good for the heart. Examining the number of minutes of walking that would be required to go from the sedentary to the low active (~120 minutes), active (~230 minutes), and very active (~400 minutes) categories, it is clear that chil- dren in the active and very active categories are most likely participating in moderate and vigorous activities, in addition to walking at 2. Physical Activity for Pregnant Women For women who have been previously physically active, continuation of physical activities during pregnancy and postpartum can be advanta- geous (Mottola and Wolfe, 2000). Unfortunately, too much or improper activity can be injurious to the woman and fetus. Regular exercise during pregnancy counteracts the effects of deconditioning that lead to fatigue, loss of muscle tone, poor posture, joint laxity, back pain, and muscle cramping (Brooks et al. Fitness promotes faster delivery, which is considered beneficial to mother and baby, and hastens recovery from preg- nancy. Moreover, resumption of physical activity after pregnancy is impor- tant for restoration of normal body weight. Women who gain more than the recommended weight during pregnancy and who fail to lose this weight 6 months after giving birth are at much higher risk of being obese nearly a decade later (Rooney and Schauberger, 2002). A full description of the benefits and hazards of exercise for the preg- nant woman and fetus is beyond the scope of this report. To an extent, anatomy and physiology protect the fetus from injury because the uterus provides a protective environment, the placenta can use alternative energy fuels (e. However, excessive exercise or incorrect exercise could compromise placental blood flow, expose the fetus to hypoxemia (low blood oxygen), hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), or hyperthermia (high body tempera- ture), or increase risk of trauma to woman and fetus. Education, common sense, and the feeling of body wellness that comes from regular physical activity can be important in guiding a pregnant woman who wants to retain the health benefits of physical activity. Similarly, intense physical activity and exercising for extended periods while dehydrated, under hot environ- mental conditions, and while fasted may increase the risk of hyperthermia and hypoglycemia. Usually, as pregnancy progresses, women instinctively alter exercise activity patterns. Women also need be aware to change or enhance exercise equipment, such as switching from supine to upright cycling. Historically, concern has been that intense physical activity could result in low birth weight infants and preterm delivery, but this concern needs to be balanced against the need to control body weight during pregnancy and afterward and current evidence that prudent physical activity per- formed at moderate intensities within current guidelines has no adverse effects on fetal development (Mottola and Wolfe, 2000). Exercise prescrip- tions for pregnant women are not dissimilar to those for other adults. Exercise sessions should be preceded by a 5- to 15-minute warm-up, and followed by a similar cool-down period. Exercise frequency should be 3 to 5 times per week, and not increase in frequency during first or third trimesters because of fatigue and an evaluation of risks to benefits. Exercise intensity should be moderate and elicit 60 to 70 percent Vo2max, which can be monitored by the maternal heart rate response as shown in Table 12-8. And finally, intensity can be gauged by the talk test, or exercise intensity where lactic acidosis drives pulmonary minute ventilation so that the pregnant woman is out of breath and cannot carry on a conversation. As stated in Chapter 4, the Dietary Reference Intakes are provided for the apparently healthy population, therefore recommended levels of physical activity that would result in weight loss of overweight or obese individuals are not provided. In terms of making a realistic physical activity recommendation for busy individuals to maintain their weight, it is important to recognize that exercise and activity recommendations consider “accumulated” physical activity. It is difficult to determine a quantifiable recommendation for physical activity based on reduced risk of chronic disease. Meeting the 60 minute/day physical activity recommendation, however, offers additional benefits in reducing risk of chronic diseases, for example, by favorably altering blood lipid profiles, changing body composition by decreasing body fat and increasing muscle mass, or both (Eliakim et al. For instance, in a study of Harvard alumni, mortality rates for men walking on average less than 9 miles each week were 15 percent higher than in men walking more than 9 miles a week (Paffenbarger et al. Moreover, in the same study, men who took up vigorous sports activities lowered their risk of death by 23 percent compared to those who remained sedentary (Paffenbarger et al. Similar favorable effects were observed in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study as men in the lowest quintile of fitness who improved their fitness to a moderate level, reduced mortality risk by 44 percent, an extent comparable to that achieved by smoking cessation (Blair et al. Results from observational and experimental studies of humans and laboratory animals provide biologically plausible insights into the benefits of regular physical activity on the delayed progression of several chronic diseases. The interrelationships between physical activity and cancer, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and skeletal health are detailed in Chapter 3.
Using non-verbal techniques to facilitate communication and pursue relevant inquiry geriforte 100mg otc herbals dario bottineau nd. Eliciting the patient’s chief complaint as well as a complete list of the patient’s concerns. Obtaining a patient’s history in a logical, organized, and thorough manner, covering the following: • History of present illness. Obtaining, whenever necessary, supplemental historical information from collateral sources, such as significant others or previous physicians. Positioning the patient and self properly for each part of the physical examination. Performing a physical examination for a patient in a logical, organized, respectful, and thorough manner, including: • The patient’s general appearance. Adapting the scope and focus of the history and physical exam appropriately to the medical situation and the time available. Appreciate the essential contribution of a pertinent and history and physical examination to patient care. Demonstrate ongoing commitment to self-directed learning regarding history taking and physical examination skills. Seek feedback regularly regarding history and physical examination skills and respond appropriately and productively. Recognize the importance of and demonstrate a commitment to the utilization of other health care professions in obtaining a history and physical examination (e. Establish a habit of updating historical information and repeating important parts of the physical examination during follow-up visits. Demonstrate consideration for the patient’s modesty, feelings, limitations, and sociocultural background whenever taking a history and performing a physical examination. Appreciate that some patients will be very anxious about the physical examination, particularly the breast, pelvic, rectal, and male genital exams. The Physiologic Origin of Heart Sounds and Murmurs: The Unique Interactive Guide to Cardiac Diagnosis. The medical interview and the relationship between physician and patient are important diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Effective communication skills are needed for a physician to serve as an effective patient advocate. Proficiency in communicating with patients results in increased patient and physician satisfaction, increased adherence to therapy, and reduced risk of malpractice claims. The student on the internal medicine clerkship interacts with a diverse array of patients, physicians, and other health team members, necessitating proficiency in communication and interpersonal skills. Students also witness how diversities of age, gender, race, culture, socioeconomic class, personality, and intellect require a sensitive and flexible approach. The result of proficiency in communication and interpersonal skills is increased satisfaction for both doctor and patient. How patients’ and physicians’ perceptions, preferences, and actions are affected by cultural and psychosocial factors and how these factors affect the doctor-patient relationship. Patient, physician, and system barriers to successfully negotiated treatment plans and patient adherence; strategies that may be used to overcome these barriers. Demonstrating appropriate listening skills, including verbal and non-verbal techniques (e. Demonstrating effective verbal skills including appropriate use of open- and closed-ended questions, repetition, facilitation, explanation, and interpretation. Determining the information a patient has independently obtained about his or her problems. Eliciting the patient’s point of view and concerns about his or her illness and the medical care he or she is receiving. Determining the extent to which a patient wants to be involved in making decisions about his or her care.
The experience of the ‘crash’ brings about its own risks with some cocaine users becoming so depressed that they may attempt suicide discount geriforte 100mg fast delivery herbals importers. Some will attempt to counteract the ‘crash’ through a self-medication approach using tranquillisers, alcohol, or injecting heroin and cocaine “speedballs”. However, it is difficult to predict who will m aintain control of their cocaine use and who will becom e chronic dependent users. Whilst it can be prescribed and dispensed, it is illegal to produce, possess or supply (except on prescription). It is also illegal to allow one’s premises to be used for producing or supplying cocaine. Administration Amphetamine can be taken: y By mouth y By sniffing/snorting y By smoking y By dissolving in water and injecting 57 Drug Facts Desired Effects The intensity of effects depend on the mode of administration. A small dose of around 30mgs taken orally will have a similar effect to the natural release of adrenaline, preparing the body for ‘fight or flight’ in response to stress or an emergency. Higher doses see: y Users become overactive, boastful and they may indulge in repetitive behaviour. Duration of Effects The duration of effects will depend on the purity of the drug, the mode of administration and the tolerance of the user. Signs and Symptoms of Use Signs and symptoms are similar to cocaine as both drugs are stimulants, including: y Unusual confidence y Hyperactivity and insomnia y Being very talkative y Nose irritation – it may be runny or itchy due to “snorting”. Short Term Risks Repeated use of small doses may see some users experience: 58 Drug Facts y Irritability y Confusion y Dizziness121 Given the way that am phetam ines stim ulate the body in a sim ilar fashion to adrenaline, its use, particularly when bingeing or after m ore sustained use, m ay contribute to feelings of deep depression, exhaustion, sleepiness and extrem e hunger as the body addresses postponed fatigue and the depletion of energy. Those who use high doses of am phetam ines on a regular basis are likely to develop ‘am phetam ine psychosis’. This drug-induced condition is sim ilar to schizophrenia and includes: y Thought disorders y Hallucinations y Feelings of being persecuted, which in turn may lead to hostility, aggression and violence towards others, as the user defends themselves against their imagined persecutors. This condition will usually disappear when drug use ceases but for some people will persist for a considerable period of time. Given the intensity of the mood-altering effects experienced, particularly in relation to the rush associated with higher doses and more efficient administration, “… severe psychological dependence can develop …”. Various amphetamines are also controlled by the 1970 Medical Preparations (Control of Amphetamines) Regulations which equally prohibits their manufacture, preparation, importation, sale and distribution. Where amphetamines are needed for treatment of a patient, the Minister of Health & Children can grant a licence to allow their supply; however, they are not available for normal prescription by doctors or pharmacies. However, the use of naturally occurring hallucinogenics such as mescaline found in the Peyote cactus and psilocybin found in magic mushrooms (referred to as teonanacatl ‘flesh of the gods’ by the Aztecs124) have a considerable history. In a wide range of cultural and geographic settings, there is evidence of hallucinogenics being utilised as an aspect of religious ritual to prom ote detachm ent from reality and to induce ‘m ystical’ visions; this particular deploym ent of psychoactive substances was renewed in the late 1950s and throughout the 1960s whereby users sought to expand their m inds and raise their consciousness through the use of hallucinogenics as part of hippie counter-culture. A tiny am ount (30 m icrogram s) is needed to produce hallucinations which m ay last for up to 12 hours. It peaks 2 to 3 hours later and the effects usually wear off after 12 to 15 hours. An increase in pulse, blood pressure and temperature, in addition to widening of the pupils can be experienced by the user. However, effects are difficult to predict as they depend upon the experience and expectations of the individual, the potency of the tab ingested and there environment within which the drug is taken. A bad trip may include: y Frightening mood changes and severe terrifying thoughts y Anxiety and feelings of loss control y Depersonalisation (a feeling of floating outside one’s own body) y Disorientation and panic y Fear of going mad or dying 61 Drug Facts For the distressed user, reassurance plays a significant role in addressing serious panic, anxiety or even psychotic reactions. Unpleasant reactions are likely if the user is mentally unstable, anxious or depressed. Users are at risk of being injured due to delusions, particularly in relation to the perceived ability to fly or walk on water. There are no exact figures for fatalities arising from accidents or suicide in relation to acid but death due to over-doses is non-existent. Flashbacks can be particularly dangerous if experienced when one is driving, working at heights or operating m achinery. Tolerance will develop with m ore sustained use which m ay, in som e instances, act to reduce habitual use. In an Irish context, it is thought that the Liberty Cap mushroom (Psilocybe semilanceata) which grows wild, is the one most commonly used. This mushroom is small, with a thin stem and a head which is said to resemble head gear worn during the French Revolution, hence its name.