By W. Vandorn. Concordia University, Mequon Wisconsin.
Anemia in kidney disease occurs as a re- sult of progressive renal parenchymal destruction quality tadora 20 mg erectile dysfunction desensitization. As the kidney attempts to preserve re- nal function and expand blood volume, renin levels increase and can cause a secondary hypertension. Dysuria can be seen in cases of chronic urinary tract obstruction due to urinary stasis and the propensity to develop urolithiasis. Pain with micturition is a hall- mark of vesicoureteral reﬂux, which causes a chronic functional obstructive uropathy. The urinalysis is not compatible with acute tubular necrosis because of the absence of granular casts. Calcium oxalate crystals are classically seen in ethylene glycol ingestion, which also causes a high anion gap metabolic acidosis. White blood cell casts indicate an upper urinary tract infection associated with a positive urine culture. Uric acid (rhomboid shapes) or struvite (“cofﬁn lids”) crystals may be seen in cases of nephrolithiasis that causes hydronephrosis. The respiratory compensation for a metabolic alkalosis is limited by the hypoxic drive. Cushing’s disease and mineralocorticoid excess cause a metabolic alkalosis with hypertension. This patient has evidence of hypovolemia with altered mental status, hypotension, and tachycardia. Myocardial infarction causing car- diogenic shock would result in an anion gap metabolic acidosis due to lactate accumulation. Hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia can cause hyponatremia, but these conditions would be associated with a high and normal plasma osmolality, respectively. A urine analysis is unlikely to be helpful in deciding when to initiate dialysis for this patient. An ionized calcium is a bet- ter marker of the true serum calcium levels but will not assist with diagnosis. This diagnosis requires prompt evaluation and therapy to avoid irreversible renal failure. In the evaluation of proteinuria with hematuria, these features should prompt a serologic and hematologic evaluation and strong consideration of renal biopsy. Since it is already apparent that this patient has proteinuria, ultrasensitive testing for microalbumin is not necessary. Cystoscopy is performed when the source of bleeding is thought to be from the bladder, after renal sources have been eliminated as causes. If the patient is hypertensive and plasma renin is el- evated, renovascular hypertension or a renin-secreting tumor (including Wilms) must be considered and appropriate imaging studies must be carried out. If plasma renin levels are low, mineralocorticoid effect may be high as a result of either endogenous hormone (glucocorticoid overproduction or aldosterone overproduction as in Conn’s syndrome) or exogenous agents (licorice or steroids). In a normotensive patient a high serum bicar- bonate excludes renal tubular acidosis. High urine chloride excretion makes gastrointes- tinal losses less likely and implies primary renal potassium loss, as may be seen in diuretic abuse (ruled out by the urine screen) or Bartter’s syndrome. In Bartter’s syndrome, hy- perplasia of the granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus leads to high renin levels and secondary aldosterone elevations. Such hyperplasia appears to be secondary to chronic volume depletion caused by a hereditary (autosomal recessive) defect that inter- feres with salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle. Chronic potassium de- pletion, which frequently presents initially in childhood, leads to polyuria and weakness. A thorough history and physical examination with limited laboratory testing usually yields the appropriate diagnosis. Typical presentations include abdominal discomfort, hematuria, urinary tract infections, or hypertension. Most patients experience a steady decline in renal func- tion over one to two decades following diagnosis. Risk factors for disease progression include male gender, African-American race, hypertension, and the presence of the polycystin-1 mutation. Patients are at an increased risk of subarachnoid and cerebral hemorrhage due to aneurysm formation. Cardiac abnormalities are present in 25% of patients, and most commonly include mitral valve prolapse and aortic regurgi- tation.
There is considerable medically actionable infor- mation that can be gleaned from genetic and genomic studies of these recent muta- tions in the genome that are shared between family members order tadora 20 mg without prescription erectile dysfunction treatment kolkata. The authors state that this “clan genomics” model could help in interpreting personal genome and disease data. Another goal of the study was to encourage a move away from a preoccupation with accounting for all of the heritability for a given disease. It is not necessary to account for all of the herita- bility in order to better understand biology and improve human health. It is also important to consider the inﬂuence that rare and common variants can have on one another, because each personal genome has a collection of deleterious as well as protective variations, which in combination dictate the health of the individual. Considering common diseases involving many genes and Mendelian diseases associ- ated with high penetrance, rare genetic variants are not necessarily separate entities, since they sometimes involve different types of alterations to the same genes or path- ways. Common variations in the so-called Mendelian disease genes are also contrib- ute to more common chronic disease in the population. Basics Technologies for Developing Personalized Medicine D e ﬁ nitions of Technologies Relevant to Personalized Medicine Important basics of personalized medicine are derived from the following technolo- gies and approaches, which will be described in more detail in various chapters of the report: 1. It involves the study of mechanism of action of the drugs on the cells as revealed by gene expression patterns. Pharmacogenetics is a term recognized in pharmacology in the pre-genomic era and concerns the study of inﬂuence of genetic factors on response to drugs. With advances in genomics, role of gene polymorphisms on action of drugs has been added to this. Pharmacoproteomics is the application of proteomics to drug discovery and development. Discovery of protein biomarkers may serve as a common basis of diagnostics and therapeutics. Subtyping patients on the basis of protein analysis may help to match a particular target-based therapy to a particular marker in a subgroup of patients. Pharmacometabolomics is the application of metabolomics for study of diseases, discovery of biomarkers, for development of diagnostics and therapeutics. However, the deﬁnition of pharmacogenetics will com- plicate the situation as it is erroneous. The main reasons for this are: • Pharmacogenetics existed long before pharmacogenomics and cannot be a sub- set of genomics any more than genetics can be a subset of genomics. Conventional Medicine Versus Personalized Medicine Conventional medicines had a start as empirical therapies. Even as mechanism- based therapies started to develop, lack of efﬁcacy and adverse effects were noted and accepted to a certain extent. Most of conventional medicines were developed as universal drugs for a certain disease. For diseases with multiple pharmacotherapies, the choice was usually left to the prescribing physician’s experience and prefer- ences. With the advances in pharmacogenetics, it became obvious that something could be done for the following problems with conventional medicines. Personalized Medicine and Evidence-Based Medicine Guidelines for evidence-based medicine are generated from the highest level of evidence from multiple randomized controlled clinical trials to address a particular clinical problem. Randomized clinical trials have speciﬁc inclusion and exclusion criteria designed to represent a population broad enough and sufﬁciently enriched to attain a requisite number of end points and demonstrate a statistically and clinically signiﬁcant dif- ference in outcome. Development of evidence-based guidelines based on relatively broad enrolment criteria inhibits the subsequent development of personalized medi- cine within the enrolment criteria (Goldberger and Buxton 2013). Although claimed are made that evidence-based medicine has the care of individual patients as its top priority that these two approaches can be compatible, it is difﬁcult to reconcile these concepts. Role of Genetics in Future Approaches to Healthcare Genetic Medicine Genetics plays an important role in almost every disease. Our risk of contracting common diseases is generally thought to be determined largely by environment and lifestyle but there is strong epidemiological evidence that genes contribute to overall risk. In multiple sclerosis, for example, the siblings of an affected person have a 25-fold increase in risk of developing the disease compared with the general popu- lation.
Decision The median of differences Related- Reject the 1 between Head circumference Samples null at 1 mo (cm) and Head Wilcoxon tadora 20 mg without a prescription impotence treatment devices. Non-parametric tests The P value that is displayed in the Hypothesis Test Summary table is computed based on the ranks of the absolute values of the differences between 1 month and 3 months. By double clicking on the Hypothesis Test Summary table, the Model Viewer window is opened and the following information is obtained (see page 99). The histogram displays the size of the rank difference between pairs of observation and the frequency of the difference. The difference is calculated as the head circumfer- ence scores at 3 months minus the head circumference scores at 1 month, as shown underneath the histogram. The number of negative ranks where the head circumfer- ence at 3 months is lower than that at 1 month is reported as negative differences in the histogram. The number of positive ranks where head circumference at 3 months is higher than that at 1 month of age is reported as positive differences. The zero ranks, that is, no difference between observations is not reported in the histogram. As the leg- end next to the bar chart indicates no babies have a negative rank, that is, a lower head circumference at 3 months than at 1 month of age, as expected. The legend also shows that there are no ties, that is, no babies with the same difference scores. Although this legend does not provide any useful information for communicating the size of effect, it Paired and one-sample t-tests 99 does indicate the direction of the effect, with the head circumference of babies increasing from 1 month to 3 months of age. In addition to reporting the total sample size and the P value, the Z statistic of 14. It is often important that the differences are standardized for between-subject differences in baseline values. Another method is to calculate the ratio between the follow-up and baseline measurements. It is important to choose a method that is appropriate for the type of data collected and that is easily communicated. Once the computations are complete, the new variables need to be labelled in the Variable View window. An assumption of paired t-tests is that the differences between the pairs of measure- ments are normally distributed; therefore, the distributions of the per cent changes need to be examined. The histograms for per cent change in weight and head circumference have a small tail to the right, but the sample size is large and the tails are not so marked that the assumptions for using a paired t-test would be violated. How- ever, the distributions should be fully checked for normality using Analyze → Descriptive Statistics → Explore as discussed in Chapter 2. With differences converted to a per cent change, the two paired values are now converted to a single con- tinuous outcome variable. Thus, a one-sample t-test, which is also called a single-sample t-test, can be used to test whether there is a statistically signiﬁcant difference between the mean per cent change and a ﬁxed value such as zero. A one-sample t-test is more ﬂexible than a paired t-test, which is limited to testing whether the mean difference is signiﬁcantly different from zero. A one-sample t-test can be used to test if the population mean is equal to a speciﬁed value. A one-sample t-test is a parametric test and the assumptions are that ﬁrstly, the data are normally distributed and secondly, the observations are independent. If the assumptions of a one sample t-test are not satisﬁed, a non-parametric equivalent test, that is, a Wilcoxon signed rank test may be conducted. Computing per cent changes provides control over the units that the changes are expressed in and their direction of effect. Paired and one-sample t-tests 103 For the research question, the command sequence shown in Box 4. The means in this table show that the per cent increase in weight over 2 months is larger than the per cent increase in length and head circum- ference. The highly signiﬁcant P values are reﬂected in the 95% conﬁdence intervals, none of which contain the zero value. The outcomes are now all in the same units, that is per cent change, and therefore growth rates between the three variables can be directly compared.
Paromomycin (Humatin) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic related to neomycin and strepto- mycin that is useful as an alternative treatment of mild-to-moderate luminal infections or in asymptomatic carriers in place of iodoquinol generic tadora 20mg amex erectile dysfunction icd 10. Stibogluconate sodium (Pentostam) (1) Stibogluconate sodium is a pentavalent antimonial. However, adverse effects are numerous and include severe and dangerous nephrotoxicity and hypoglycemia. It is also the drug of choice when antimonials are ineffective or are contraindicated. Nifurtimox is used to treat South American trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease). Suramin is useful for the treatment of end-stage African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sick- ness, caused by T. Eflornithine (Ornidyl), an alternative for late-stage African trypanosomiasis, is an ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor that is effective in arousing comatose sleeping sickness patients (the ‘‘resurrection drug’’). Melarsoprol (mel B) (1) Melarsoprol is a trivalent arsenical that reacts with sulfhydryl groups in proteins. Toxoplasmosis is treated with a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine (or clindamycin). Mebendazole (Vermox) and albendazole (Albenza) (1) Mebendazole and albendazole are benzimidazole carbamates that bind with high affin- ity to parasite free B-tubulin to inhibit its polymerization and microtubule assembly. It is also rec- ommended for infections caused by the cestodes Echinococcus granulosus and E. Diethylcarbamazine (Hetrazan) (1) This agent decreases microfilariae muscular activity, causing their dislocation, and it also disrupts their membranes, making them susceptible to host defense mechanisms. Chapter 11 Drugs Used in Treatment of Infectious Diseases 275 (2) Diethylcarbamazine is the drug of choice to treat loiasis, despite host response-induced toxicity, and it is a first-line agent for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia caused by Wucheria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. Ivermectin (Mectizan) (1) Ivermectin causes paralysis of the organism’s musculature by activation of inverte- – brate-specific glutamate-gated Cl channels. Praziquantel (Biltricide) (1) Praziquantel causes muscle contraction, with paralysis of the worm; it also causes teg- mental damage, with host-defense activation and destruction of the worm. It is recommended for Fasciola hepatica (sheep liver fluke infection) and as an alternative to praziquantel for acute paragonimiasis. Acyclovir is a purine analogue that needs to be converted to nucleoside triphosphate for activity. Valacyclovir (Valtrex), a prodrug, is converted rapidly and completely to acyclovir, increas- ing its oral bioavailability to 50%. Chronic oral administration provides suppression and shortening of duration of symptoms in recurrent genital herpes. It is also used in herpes zos- ter in immunocompromised patients; ophthalmic application is used to treat herpes sim- plex dendritic keratitis; and topical application is used for mucocutaneous herpetic infections in immunosuppressed patients. In up to 5% of patients, reversible renal insufficiency due to crystalline nephropathy, or neu- rotoxicity, including tremor, delirium, and seizures, develop. Famciclovir (Famvir) is a prodrug that is well absorbed and then converted by deacetylation to penciclovir, which has activity similar to that of acyclovir except that it does not cause chain termination. It can also be used in combination therapy with Foscarnet, which is shown to be more effective. Resistance is primarily the result of impaired phosphorylation due to a point mutation or a deletion in the viral phosphotransferase. Valganciclovir is an ester prodrug that is converted to ganciclovir by intestinal enzymes. The therapeutic efficacy of foscarnet is limited by nephrotoxicity and hypocalcemia-related symptoms, including paresthesia, arrhythmias, and seizures. Adverse effects of these agents include edema around the eyes or eyelids with pain, pruri- tus, and inflammation. Docosanol (Abrevia), Penciclovir (Denavir)—These drugs are over-the-counter topical agents used to treat herpes labialis. Amantadine and rimantadine are used to treat orthomyxovirus (influenza A) infections when administered within the first 48 hours of symptoms, and as prophylaxis during flu sea- son.
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