By Z. Lars. Nyack College. 2018.
You’ll need to hold frequent dialogues in order to become familiar with the core wounding discount doxycycline 200 mg mastercard antibiotics for persistent uti, coping strategies and needs of your inner child. However, the real issue is how you deal with your mind on a moment-to-moment basis during a stressful event. You can either bring your attention to the breath or intentionally breathe in a relaxed manner. This, initially, may be all that you can do in the heat of a really stressful moment. However, as you become more experienced in the practice of mindfulness and more familiar with the inner child and its underlying feelings and needs, you’ll be able to apply some of the other techniques that you’ve learned. Try one or more of the following approaches during a stressful moment, but remember that they’ll all be much more effective and easier to do if you’re regularly practicing, mindfulness, relaxed breathing, and inner-child dialoguing: • Bring your attention to the physical sensations and rest in the body knowing that you’re directly experiencing how the inner child feels. Mindfulness of your thought process is a wonderful way to step out of the storyline and bring awareness to how your mind works. Remember, the story that Larry told himself: I bought the suit and now I’m terrible and will be penniless. Mindfulness of the Inner Child: Putting It All Together • 231 It was Larry’s story that was stressful, not the fact that he bought a suit. Once you’ve been practicing mindfulness and inner-child dialogue for some time and have truly begun to understand that the stressful mental states that you’re experiencing are fabrications of the mind, 232 • Mindfulness Medication invented stories based on your childhood belief system, you can be present in any given moment in a very freeing way. The qualities of any internal or external stressful sensation or event that you experience are all creations of your mind. Stress is produced by your reaction in the moment, as you gauge everything you experience according to your belief system. When you experience something that you’re interpreting as stressful, say to yourself: • This is a fabrication, a story of the mind, and I choose not to believe it. I will just rest in the knowledge that the mental state that I’m experiencing is an illusion of the mind. As the last important step in your integrated practice, I want you to consider how you act toward others. The question is whether this is a dominant motivation in how you behave, or whether a more universal, compassionate, connected perspective dictates your behaviour. As you start to see the illusory nature of how the mind constructs its suffering, based on the conditioned reality of the inner child, there’s less to defend and your heart can open. Some Imight define happiness as having more things, but for me, it’s being able to be present for whatever my mind poses to me, without automatically and unconsciously reacting in a fearful, angry or anxious way. I want to be present from an openness of heart that doesn’t need to defend my ego or my inner child. I have explored many different spiritual and psychological traditions in my own personal quest to find greater happiness. I have found that the ability to have an inner-child dialogue, as a way to understand the core motivation for how my mind works, along with the ability to hold the experience mindfully, to be complementary and transformative techniques. I encourage you to view each moment of awareness, whether it’s perceived to be good or bad, as a gift. Every moment of mindfulness brings you a step closer to freedom from stress and suffering. The goal is to bring awareness to the inner child 233 234 • Mindfulness Medication and hold it with the compassion and spaciousness of mindfulness. Our minds are capable of being angry, sad or happy and we identify with and then tend to become those emotional and mental states. One leads to stress and suffering and the other to an open acceptance, without the ownership and grief, of whatever is currently happening. I believe that it’s because we’re not aware that we can choose to operate from a different perspective. We haven’t learned that we can use mindfulness and inner-child dialogue to deal with the unconscious, conditioned, coping strategies of the wounded inner child. Freedom from stress ultimately comes from observing that suffering is really a mental construction, and that means you’re free to change it. I have tried to outline some practical approaches to lasting stress reduction so that, at the end of the day, you have some excellent techniques to work with.
The high porosity of the system means that it dissolves instantaneously on the tongue and does not require water to aid swallowing cheap doxycycline 100 mg amex antibiotic resistance npr. A number of products are currently available which use the Zydis technology including Dimetapp Quick Dissolving Tablets, Feldene Melt and Pepdine. However, it is important to note that the system does not actually facilitate oral transmucosal delivery per se, rather it allows rapid release of the drug in the mouth. The drug is then washed down with the saliva for subsequent absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. The convenience and acceptability of a Zydis formulation make it particularly suitable for patients who find it difficult or inconvenient to swallow solid dosage forms. In trials, up to 90% of patients expressed a preference for taking the Zydis formulation compared with a conventional tablet. Important features for drug delivery associated with these novel buccal patches include: 7. Multi-directional release The type of patch allows release of the drug moiety to the underlying mucosa (and thus the systemic circulation) and also to the saliva bathing the oral cavity (Figure 7. Drug released into the saliva may also be absorbed systemically through the mucus membranes of the oral cavity and/or remain locally. However, disadvantages associated with this approach include: • the drug becomes substantially diluted in the saliva; • substantial loss of the drug may occur when the saliva is swallowed; 182 Figure 7. Unidirectional release In this type of system, drug loss to the saliva can be decreased by using an impermeable backing layer (Figure 7. An additional advantage of these systems is that the effect of additives can be restricted to the site of application. However, this approach also means that the drug moiety is confined to the site of application, thus the available absorption area is quite small. Furthermore, presence of a backing layer can also decrease the flexibility of the dosage form leading to increased patient discomfort and reduced patient compliance. Drug release rate can be controlled by the use of: Matrix or drug-in-adhesive systems The drug is distributed throughout a polymer matrix. Such a system can be relatively easy to manufacture, the simplest case being when the drug is dispersed directly in a blend composed of, for example, a mixture of poly(acrylic acid) and elastomeric compounds such as poly(isobutylene) and poly(isoprene). Reservoir systems The reservoir patch has a similar bioadhesive component but pharmaceutical formulations containing certain excipients, such as penetration enhancers and enzyme inhibitors, can be placed in the center of the design. Matrix and reservoir systems, and their drug release profiles (firstorder, and square-root time order, respectively), have been discussed in detail in Chapters 3 and 4. However, patch size must always be considered with respect to patient comfort and acceptability and must not be too large so that these factors are compromised. Thus the size of adhesive patches is generally in the range 2–5 cm, with 10–15 cm being2 2 the upper limit. The principal mechanism for bioadhesion of oral patches appears to be physical entanglement of the adhesive polymer of the patch in the mucus glycoprotein chains, with secondary (electrostatic, hydrogen, hydrophobic) chemical bonding playing a minor role. Adhesive polymers used in oral patches include poly(hydroxyethylcellulose), poly (hydroxypropylcellulose), poly(sodium carboxymethylcellulose), poly(acrylic acid), poly(methacrylic acid), poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and poly (vinyl alcohol). The binding properties of a given polymer are affected by physicochemical properties such as its molecular weight, configuration, cross-linking density, charge and concentration. As well as initial tack properties, another important consideration is the duration of bioadhesion. The influence of viscosity on adhesion time depends on the type of polymer, for example poly(vinylpyrrolidone) affords an adhesion time which increases exponentially with viscosity grade. Poly(hydroxyethylcellulose) and poly(vinyl alcohol) also show increased adhesion times with increasing viscosity; however, the reverse is true for hydroxypropylcellulose. Regardless of the viscosity, increasing the amounts of polymer in the patch increases the adhesion time. Patches with backing layers that are permeable to water generally show shorter adhesion times than those with impermeable backing layers. This is due to the slower erosion of the hydrocolloid when one side of the patch is protected against water uptake. The limited surface area available for absorption often means that a2 penetration enhancer is necessary to ensure: • an effective dose can be delivered from a patch of reasonable size; • the range of transmucosal drug delivery candidates can be extended, for example, to include poorly absorbed moieties such as therapeutic peptides and proteins. Penetration enhancers are discussed extensively for the transdermal nasal route in Sections 8.
It is composed of three structures: the lates around the spinal cord and brain and through (11) midbrain (also called mesencephalon) cheap 100mg doxycycline otc infections during pregnancy, separating ventricles located within the inner portion of the the cerebrum from the brainstem; the (12) medulla, brain. It provides nutritive substances to the cen- which attaches to the spinal cord; and (13) the pons, tral nervous system and adds additional protection or “bridge,” connecting the midbrain to the medulla. Normally, cerebrospinal fluid is absorbed conduction between the brain and spinal cord. The as rapidly as it is formed, maintaining a constant brainstem is the origin of 10 of the 12 pairs of cranial fluid volume. Any interference with its absorption nerves and controls respiration, blood pressure, and results in a collection of fluid in the brain; a condi- heart rate. This ing heart in a fetus) and the end of life (the cessation membrane directly adheres to the brain and spinal of respiration and heart activity) it is sometimes cord. It contains numerous blood vessels and lymphatics that nourish the Spinal cord underlying tissues. Because of the thinness and The spinal cord transmits sensory impulses from delicacy of the arachnoid and pia mater, these two the body to the brain and motor impulses from the meninges are collectively called the leptomeninges. The sen- Peripheral Nervous System sory nerve tracts are called ascending tracts because the direction of the impulse is upward. A cross-section of the consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs spinal cord reveals an inner gray matter composed of spinal nerves. The somatic nervous system consists of nerve The entire spinal cord is located within the fibers that transmit sensory information to the spinal cavity of the vertebral column, with spinal brain and spinal cord, and nerve fibers that trans- nerves exiting between the intervertebral spaces mit impulses from the brain and spinal cord to throughout almost the entire length of the spinal muscles under conscious or voluntary control, such column. The specific names, the spinal nerves are identified by autonomic nervous system consists of nerves that the region of the vertebral column from which control involuntary movement, such as digestion, they exit. To a large extent, tion from three coverings called meninges (singu- these subdivisions oppose the action of the other, lar, meninx). These coverings include the dura although in certain instances, they may exhibit mater, arachnoid, and pia mater. In general, The dura mater is the outermost covering of the sympathetic subdivision produces responses the brain and spinal cord. An increases in skeletal muscles to prepare an individ- example of a mixed nerve is the facial nerve. It acts ual to either fight or retreat from a threatening in a motor capacity by transmitting impulses for situation. However, it also acts in a sen- generally responds when immediate action is sory capacity by transmitting taste impulses from not required or a threatening situation subsides. This subdivision is sometimes called the “rest and relax” or “rest and digest” condition. Sensory nerves are attachment to the spinal cord: an anterior (ven- afferent, and receive impulses from the sense tral) root and a posterior (dorsal) root. Some to form the spinal nerve that has both afferent and cranial nerves are composed of both sensory and efferent qualities. Table 14-2 Actions Regulated by Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Systems This table summarizes some of the responses regulated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic divi- sions of the peripheral nervous system. Sympathetic Division Parasympathetic Division Dilates pupils Constricts pupils Inhibits the flow of saliva Increases the flow of saliva Relaxes bronchi Constricts bronchi Accelerates heart rate Slows heart rate Slows digestive activities Accelerates digestive activities Constricts visceral blood vessels Dilates visceral blood vessels Anatomy and Physiology 433 Connecting Body Systems–Nervous System The main function of the nervous system is to identify and respond to internal and external changes in the environment to maintain homeostasis. Specific functional relationships between the nervous system and other body systems are discussed below. Blood, Lymph, and Immune Genitourinary • Nervous system identifies changes in • Nervous tissue in reproductive organs blood and lymph composition and pro- receives pleasure responses. Cardiovascular Integumentary • Nervous tissue, especially the conduction • Sensory nervous system supplies recep- system of the heart, transmits a contrac- tors in the skin that respond to environ- tion impulse. Digestive Musculoskeletal • Nervous stimuli of digestive organs propel • Nervous system provides impulses for food by peristalsis. It is time to review nervous system structures by completing Learning Activity 14–1. Anatomy and Physiology 435 C1 C2 C3 C4 Cervical nerves C5 C6 C7 C8 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 Thoracic nerves T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 A. L1 Central L2 White canal matter Gray Lumbar nerves matter L3 Posterior L4 root L5 S1 Posterior root S2 ganglion S3 Sacral nerves S4 S5 Pia mater Co Coccygeal nerve Arachnoid Spinal membrane nerve Dura mater Anterior roots Subarachnoid space Cauda equina Figure 14-5. The most common type, which accounts for about 80% of all strokes, is Damage to the brain and spinal cord invariably ischemic stroke. Ischemic stroke is caused by a causes signs and symptoms in other parts of the narrowing of the arteries of the brain or the arter- body.
B Since the concentration of an analyte may not be by the regional population of adults age 18 and normally distributed in a population order doxycycline 200 mg with amex antibiotic resistance join the fight, the reference older. Te analyte concentration is known to be range should not be determined from the standard independent of race and gender. A minimum of 120 samples is the analyte from 40 healthy adults and calculate needed for statistical significance. Measure the analyte in 120 healthy adults and lowest value and the 118th is the highest value in calculate the central 95th percentile the reference range. Measure the analyte in 60 healthy adults and range, it can be considered valid for the patient 60 adults with conditions that aﬀect the analyte population. When comparing the laboratory’s monthly mean Answers to Questions 51–53 to its peer group to determine if bias is present, what statistic is most appropriate? Standard deviation index mean, and allows performance comparisons for any analyte. Which of the following methods is most useful distribution to a t test and a value greater than 2. Signiﬁcant change limit intervention is likely needed to prevent injury or Chemistry/Apply knowledge to identify sources of death. The significant change limit is the difference error/Statistics/2 in test results that is medically significant, or that 53. Which of the following total quality management which cannot be attributed to the sum of normal tools can be used to calculate the analytical error physiological and analytical variation. Laboratory information system patient’s status, other causes are sample misidentification, contamination, and random Chemistry/Apply principles of laboratory operations/ error. Delta limits are expressed in percent and Quality management/2 vary depending on analyte stability. At the six-sigma level, the analytical process has such small variance that an error of six times the standard deviation would still be within acceptable limits for total allowable error. For example, a six-sigma process for an analyte produces a signiﬁcant error in test result only 3. Conversely, a method performing at the three-sigma level would give 66,807 errors per million. The sigma of a method is calculated by subtracting its bias from the total method error and dividing by its standard deviation. In which circumstances is a validation study Answers to Questions 54–55 (versus performing routine quality control) required? Source lamp or ion selective electrode change two levels of control material following the C. Change in calibrator lot alter the test system more dramatically, especially when the reagent was subjected to storage and Chemistry/Apply principles of laboratory operations/ shipping conditions that alter its performance. Deamination of dibasic amino acids 2% daily from the oxidation of creatine mainly in D. Creatine can be converted to Chemistry/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological creatinine by addition of strong acid or alkali or by characteristics/Biochemical/1 the enzyme creatine hydroxylase. B Creatinine concentration is dependent upon muscle measure endogenous renal clearance because: mass, but varies by less than 15% per day. Te rate of formation per day is independent of is not metabolized by the liver, or dependent on diet, body size and is 100% ﬁltered by the glomeruli. It is completely ﬁltered by the glomeruli reabsorbed signiﬁcantly but is secreted slightly, C. Chemistry/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological characteristics/Biochemical/1 3. B Serum creatinine is a specific but not a sensitive measure of glomerular function. Serum levels are elevated in early renal disease serum creatinine becomes elevated. High serum levels result from reduced creatinine diminishes as serum creatinine increases glomerular ﬁltration in renal disease, the creatinine clearance is more C.
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