By R. Vibald. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Energy diagram showing the energy levels of the substrates as they progress toward three-dimensional surface (transition state products in the absence of enzyme cheap 50 mg viagra professional amex erectile dysfunction ed natural treatment. The substrates must pass through the high-energy transi- analogs) are more potent inhibitors of an tion state during the reaction. Although a favorable loss of energy occurs during the reaction, enzyme than are substrate analogs. Conse- the rate of the reaction is slowed by the energy barrier to forming the transition state. The quently, a drug developed as a transition energy barrier is referred to as the activation energy. For some enzyme-catalyzed reactions, the transition state is a condi- transition state analogs are highly unstable tion in which bonds in the substrate are maximally strained. For other enzyme-cat- when not bound to the enzyme, and would have great difficulty making it from the alyzed reactions, the electronic configuration of the substrate becomes very strained digestive tract or injection site to the site of and unstable as it enters the transition state. Some of the approaches in drug the most unstable substrate configuration, and the condition in which the changing design that are being used to deal with the substrate molecule is most tightly bound to participating functional groups in the instability problem include: designing drugs enzyme. The difference in energy between the substrate and the transition state com- that are almost transition state analogs but plex is called the activation energy. Enzymes increase the rate of the reaction by decreasing this acti- tion state analog to design a complementary vation energy. They use various catalytic strategies, such as electronic stabilization of antibody. Once the transition state complex is formed, it can collapse back to substrates or Abzymes (catalytic antibodies) are decompose to form products. The enzyme does not change the initial energy level made as antibodies against analogs of the transition state complex. They of the substrates or the final energy level of the products. CATALYTIC MECHANISM OF CHYMOTRYPSIN to the active site of the enzyme in the transi- tion state. Consequently, they can act as artifi- The enzyme chymotrypsin provides a good example of the strategies and amino acid cial enzymes. For example, abzymes have side chains used by enzymes to lower the amount of activation energy required. Chy- been developed against analogs of the transi- motrypsin is a digestive enzyme released into the intestine that catalyzes the hydrol- tion state complex of cocaine esterase, the ysis of specific peptide bonds in denatured proteins. It is a member of the serine pro- enzyme that degrades cocaine in the body. In the overall hydrolysis reaction, an OH from water monthly injections of the abzyme drug can be used to rapidly destroy cocaine in the blood, is added to the carbonyl carbon of the peptide bond, and an H to the N, thereby cleav- thereby decreasing the dependence of ing the bond (Fig. The bond that is cleaved is called the scissile bond. The Reaction in the Absence of Enzyme In the reaction carried out in the absence of enzyme, the negatively charged Hydrolysis is the use of water to lyse (break) a bond. Proteolysis is hydroxyl group of water attacks the carbonyl carbon, which carries a partial posi- the hydrolysis of a peptide bond in tive charge. An unstable oxyanion tetrahedral transition state complex is formed in a protein, a reaction catalyzed by enzymes which the oxygen atom carries a full negative charge. The rate of the chemical reaction in the absence of chymotrypsin is slow because there are too few OH called proteases. CHAPTER 8 / ENZYMES AS CATALYSTS 121 molecules in H2O with enough energy to form the transition state complex and too Poly- few OH molecules colliding with the substrate at the right orientation. Catalytic Strategies in the Reaction Catalyzed R1 OH– + H+ R2 by Chymotrypsin H2O In the reaction catalyzed by chymotrypsin, the same oxyanion intermediate is chymotrypsin formed by using the hydoxyl group of a serine residue for the attack instead of a O H free hydroxyl anion. The rate of the chymotrypsin-catalyzed reaction is faster CH C OH + N CH because functional groups in the enzyme active site activate the attacking hydroxyl H group, stabilize the oxyanion transition state complexes, form a covalent intermedi- R1 R2 ate, and destabilize the leaving group. Chymotrypsin hydrolyzes certain cleavage of the peptide bond in the denatured substrate protein and formation of a peptide bonds in proteins. The scissile bond is covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate (Fig. The carbonyl carbon, which acyl-enzyme intermediate to release the remaining portion of the substrate protein carries a partial positive charge, is attacked by (Fig. The names of the catalytic strategies employed in the various a hydroxyl group from water.
Compounds synthesized from amino acid precursors are essential for physiologic functions buy 50 mg viagra professional amex erectile dysfunction pump operation. Many of these compounds are degraded to N-containing urinary metabolites and do not return to the free amino acid pool. In tissues, the nitrogen is removed from amino acids by transamination and deamination reactions. The nitrogen from amino acid degradation appears in the urine primarily as urea or NH , the ammonium ion. Ammo- 4 nia excretion is necessary to maintain the pH of the blood. Amino acids are used as fuels either directly or after being converted to glucose by gluconeogenesis. Some amino acids can be synthesized in the human, provided that glucose and a nitrogen source are available. Net degradation of labile protein occurs in skeletal muscle (which contains the body’s largest protein mass) and other tissues. RELEASE OF AMINO ACIDS FROM SKELETAL MUSCLE DURING FASTING The efflux of amino acids from skeletal muscle supports the essential amino acid pool in the blood (see Fig. Skeletal muscle oxidizes the BCAA (valine, leucine, isoleucine) to produce energy and glutamine. The amino groups of the BCAA, and of aspartate and glutamate, are transferred out of skeletal muscle in ala- nine and glutamine. Alanine and glutamine account for approximately 50% of the total -amino nitrogen released by skeletal muscle (Fig. The release of amino acids from skeletal muscle is stimulated during an overnight fast by the decrease of insulin and increase of glucocorticoid levels in the blood (see Chapters 31 and 43). Insulin promotes the uptake of amino acids and the general synthesis of proteins. The mechanisms for the stimulation of protein syn- thesis in human skeletal muscle are not all known, but probably include an activa- tion of the A system for amino acid transport (a modest effect), a general effect on initiation of translation, and an inhibition of lysosomal proteolysis. The fall of blood insulin levels during an overnight fast results in net proteolysis and release of amino acids. As glucocorticoid release from the adrenal cortex increases, an induction of ubiquitin synthesis and an increase of ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis also occur. AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN LIVER DURING FASTING The major site of alanine uptake is the liver, which disposes of the amino nitrogen by incorporating it into urea (see Fig. The liver also extracts free amino acids, CHAPTER 42 / INTERTISSUE RELATIONSHIPS IN THE METABOLISM OF AMINO ACIDS 765 Kidney NH3 Brain NH+ 4 Glutamine Urea Valine, Isoleucine Gut Alanine Alanine Glutamine Lactate BCAA Skeletal Urea Liver muscle Cells of the Glucose Lactate immune system Amino acids α-Keto acids Alanine Fig. Interorgan amino acid exchange after an overnight fast. After an overnight fast (the postabsorptive state), the utilization of amino acids for protein synthesis, for fuels, and for the synthesis of essential functional compounds continues. The free amino acid pool is supported largely by net degradation of skeletal muscle protein. Glutamine and alanine serve as amino group carriers from skeletal muscle to other tissues. Glut- amine brings NH to the kidney for the excretion of protons and serves as a fuel for the kidney, gut, and cells of the immune system. Alanine 4 transfers amino groups from skeletal muscle, the kidney, and the gut to the liver, where they are converted to urea for excretion. The brain con- tinues to use amino acids for neurotransmitter synthesis. Amino acid release from human forearm Composition of average protein 25 20 15 10 5 0 Alanine Glutamine Branched- chain amino acids Fig. The arteriovenous difference (concentration in arterial blood minus the concentration in venous blood) across the human forearm has been measured for many amino acids. This graph compares the amount of alanine, glutamine, and BCAA released with their composition in the average protein. Alanine and glutamine represent a much higher percentage of total nitrogen released than originally present in the degraded protein, evidence that they are being synthesized in the skeletal muscle. The BCAA (leucine, valine, and isoleucine) are released in much lower amounts than those present in the degraded protein, evidence that they are being catabolized. Aspartate and glutamate also contribute nitrogen to the formation of alanine and glutamine 766 SECTION SEVEN / NITROGEN METABOLISM Glucose -keto acids, and some glutamine from the blood.
Ultimately discount 100 mg viagra professional with mastercard erectile dysfunction pills photos, the car- required for growth) bons of the amino acids are converted to CO2 and H2O. Many of these digestive proteases are synthesized as larger, inactive forms known as zymogens. After zymogens are secreted into the digestive tract, they are cleaved to produce the active proteases. In the stomach, pepsin begins the digestion of proteins by hydrolyzing them to smaller polypeptides. The contents of the stomach pass into the small intestine, where enzymes produced by the exocrine pancreas act. The pancreatic proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and the carboxypeptidases) cleave the polypep- tides into oligopeptides and amino acids. Further cleavage of the oligopeptides to amino acids is accomplished by enzymes produced by the intestinal epithelial cells. These enzymes include aminopeptidases located on the brush border and other peptidases located within the cells. Ultimately, the amino acids produced by protein digestion are absorbed through the intestinal epithelial cells and enter the blood. A large number of overlapping transport systems exist for amino acids in cells. Some systems contain facilitative transporters, whereas others express sodium- linked tranporters, which allow the active transport of amino acids into cells. Defects in amino acid transport can lead to disease. Proteins are also continually synthesized and degraded (turnover) in cells. A wide variety of proteases exist in cells to carry out this activity. Lysosomal pro- teases (cathepsins) degrade proteins that enter lysosomes. Cytoplasmic proteins targeted for turnover are covalently linked to the small protein ubiquitin,which then interacts with a large protein complex, the proteasome, to degrade the pro- tein in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent process. The amino acids released from proteins during turnover can then be used for the synthesis of new proteins or for energy generation. THE WAITING ROOM Sissy Fibrosa, a young child with cystic fibrosis, has had repeated bouts of bronchitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. With each of these infections, her response to aerosolized antibiotics has been good. However, her malabsorption of food continues, resulting in foul-smelling, glistening, bulky stools. She is now in the 24th percentile for height and the 20th percentile for weight. She is often listless and irritable, and she tires easily. When her pediatrician discovered that her levels of the serum proteins 687 688 SECTION SEVEN / NITROGEN METABOLISM albumin, transferrin, and thyroid hormone binding prealbumin (transthyretin) were low to low-normal (indicating protein malnutrition), Sissy was given enteric-coated microspheres of pancreatic enzymes. Almost immediately, the character of Sissy’s Food stools became more normal and she began gaining weight. In the next 6 months, her growth curves showed improvement, and she seemed brighter, more active, and less irritable. HCl Stomach For the first few months after a painful episode of renal colic, during which Protein he passed a kidney stone (see Chapter 6), Cal Kulis had faithfully main- pepsin tained a high daily fluid intake and had taken the medication required to Pancreas increase the pH of his urine. Because he has cystinuria, these measures were nec- essary to increase the solubility of the large amounts of cystine present in his urine Peptides and, thereby, to prevent further formation of kidney stones (calculi). With time, – HCO3 however, he became increasingly complacent about his preventive program.
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